Population: 14,723,497
Number of K-12 Schools: 4850
Number of K-12 Students: 2,020,245
Number of K-12 E-Learning Programs: ~70
Number of K-12 E-Learning Students: ~1,402,850

Note that these profiles are taken from the most recent edition of the report, please review additional annual profiles below.

Governance and Regulation

There is no reference to distance education and/or online learning in the Education Act R.S.O, 1990. However, the Education Act, 1990 does make a reference to “equivalent learning,” which is defined as a learning situation that falls outside the instruction traditionally provided by a board, that is approved under paragraph 3.0.1 of subsection 8(1) and for which a pupil’s success can be reasonably evaluated.

Since 2006, the Ontario e-Learning Strategy has guided the Ministry of Education to afford school boards with various supports necessary to provide students with online and blended learning opportunities. The Francophone version of the strategy, Apprentissage électronique Ontario, was released in 2007. Under this policy, the Ministry provides school boards with access to a learning management system and other tools for the delivery of e-learning, asynchronous course content for a wide range of English- and French-language courses and a variety of multimedia learning objects, along with a variety of other technical and human resource supports (including a “Technology Enabled Learning and Teaching Contact” or “Personne-ressource en apprentissage et enseignement par la technologie” in each school board). School boards delivering either online or blended learning must sign a “Master User Agreement” to access all of these services.

Ontario publicly-funded schools must report student enrollments in elearning classes to the Ontario Student Information System This includes students who are enrolled in elearning courses as part of their regular day school, continuing education, and summer school programs.

In 2020-21, funding for day school students taking e-learning in Ontario’s publicly-funded district school boards was the same as the traditional brick-and-mortar education. In English-language schools, students may enroll in an online course offered by another school board provided they do so through their home school. In such a situation, the applicability of provincially established fees for students taking e-learning courses are worked out locally between the two school boards. The fee for the 2020-21 school year was $585 per credit course. In French-language schools, students remain with their home school board and take online courses offered by the Consortium d’apprentissage virtuel de langue française de l’Ontario (CAVLFO), a consortium funded and managed by all twelve francophone school boards.

Private schools operate as businesses or non-profit organizations independently of the Ministry of Education, and in accordance with the legal requirements established by the Education Act. These private schools do not receive any funding or other financial support from the government. While all private schools in Ontario must meet the same general requirements, private schools seeking the authority to grant credits toward the Ontario Secondary School Diploma must be inspected by the Ministry of Education. Inspectors look for evidence of ongoing interactions between the teacher and students in the online learning environment, and for a direct link between the specific and overall curriculum expectations being taught and assessed in compliance with Ministry policy and observed practices. For any credit course delivered online by a private school, all of the curriculum expectations including hours of instruction, assessment, evaluation and reporting must be in accordance with the policies outlined in Growing Success: Assessment, Evaluation and Reporting in Ontario Schools-First Edition, Covering Grades 1 to 12 (2010) and the relevant curriculum documents.

A November 21, 2019 announcement established that Ontario students would be required to take two online credits to graduate from secondary school beginning with students graduating in 2023-24, and that courses began counting toward this requirement beginning in September 2020 (Ministry of Education, 2019).  With this announcement, Ontario became the only jurisdiction in Canada with an online learning graduation requirement.

K-12 Distance and Online Learning Activity

Each of the publicly-funded 60 English-speaking and 12 French-speaking school boards have the ability to offer some form of online learning using the provincial learning management system combined with the online curricular materials provided or their own. Many of the school boards also participate in one or more consortia designed to allow its school board members to work together to maximize their online offerings by sharing course offerings, resources and students (e.g., Ontario eLearning Consortium, Ontario Catholic eLearning Consortium, etc.). During the 2019-20 school year (most recent school year for which data are available), approximately 87,000 students participated in online learning programs offered by publicly-funded district school boards.

Additionally, the Independent Learning Centre (ILC), which operates within TVO, serves Ontario youth 14+ and adults seeking to earn high school credits or an Ontario Secondary School Diploma. The reporting year for the TVO ILC runs from April 1 of one year to March 31 of the following year, the same as the government of Ontario’s fiscal year. During the 2020-21 school year, there were more than 22,000 students enrolled in distance courses offered by the

Finally, there are as many as eight different private or independent K-12 distance or online learning programs, some of which have also formed their own consortium. The most recent data available indicated that approximately 18,000 elearning credits were earned in private online schools.

K-12 Blended Learning Activity

The Ministry of Education describes blended learning as instruction and student learning that incorporates digital resources within the face-to-face classroom. In addition to the various resources provided by the Ministry that were described earlier (e.g., learning management system, digital content and resources, Technology Enabled Learning and Teaching Contact, etc.), the Ministry has also provided funding to school boards through the Technology and Learning Fund from 2014 to 2017 to implement innovative practices to transform learning and teaching, many of which incorporate aspects of blended learning.

The Ministry does not track the wide variety of digital tools that may be used to support blended learning that take place in Ontario schools. The Ministry does provide licenses for a provincial learning management system, and digital tools for school boards to use for blended and e-learning opportunities with their students. As such, all educators in Ontario have the opportunity to use digital tools to provide a blended learning experience that meets their student needs. In the 2020-21 school year there were approximately 1,402,850 unique student logins in the learning management system (and, as stated above, more than 87,000 of these were students engaged in completing eLearning courses).

Remote Learning

Spring 2020 Closure

Schools in Ontario closed on March 23, 2020. The Ministry of Education launched their remote teaching website, Learn at Home, which offered a curated list of resources across grades and disciplines to support students, parents, and guardians with a curricular focus on literacy and numeracy. The Ministry already provided a Virtual Learning Environment with digital courses and resources that also provided free webinars, resources, and training for teachers and resources for parents. The Ministry partnered with Rogers Communications and Apple to allow school boards to distribute iPad devices pre-equipped with free Rogers LTE wireless data up to June 2020. The attendance expectations for students in grades K-6 were five hours of engagement in remote teaching, grades 7-8 ten hours, and grades 9-12 three hours per course per week for students on a semester system, 90 minutes for students in a non-semester system. Reports cards were delivered, however, grades were frozen from March 13, 2020. Students were allowed to improve their grades only, and all provincial standardized testing was cancelled.

Fall 2020 Reopening

Most school boards chose to delay the start of in-class learning by one week with staggered start dates by grade level and remote learning was delayed by two weeks. Elementary students had the option to attend class full-time or continue with remote learning while secondary students used cohort groupings to limit class size to 15. Blended learning was used for students who were not able to attend in-school due to COVID-19 and for secondary cohort groups to attend school on alternate days. Enhanced health measures were put in place including, physical distancing, signage to control student movement, staggering of lunches, recesses, and bell times, and mandatory masks for grades 4-12 students. For remote learning students, a daily schedule was to be provided based on a five-hour instructional day for students. For those with limited access to the internet, the Ministry suggested boards open school spaces to accommodate students in a supervised ‘study hall’.

2020-21 School Year

The 2020-21 school year proceeded with in-person learning, but on January 4, 2021, emergency remote learning began again due to a provincial lockdown. Various regions across Ontario reopened at different times based on COVID-19 cases: elementary school students in most regions returned to in-class learning on February 1, 2021, with mandatory masks for all students in grades one to three who had previously been exempt. By February 8, 2021, most southwestern Ontario students returned to in-school learning, with students in all regions returning to class by February 16, 2021. The March Break was postponed for all public schools until the week of April 12, 2021, and all provincial schools returned to remote learning on April 19 with schools remaining closed to students for the remainder of the school year.


Ministry of Education. (2019). Ontario brings learning into the digital age: Province announces plan to enhance online learning, become global leader. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/54695/ontario-brings-learning-into-the-digital-age

Nagle, J., Barbour, M. K., & LaBonte, R. (2020a). Documenting triage: Detailing the response of provinces and territories to emergency remote teaching. Canadian eLearning Network. https://secureservercdn.net/

Nagle, J., Barbour, M. K., & LaBonte, R. (2021). Toggling between lockdowns: Canadian responses for continuity of learning in the 2020-21 school year. Canadian eLearning Network. https://secureservercdn.net/

Nagle, J., LaBonte, R., & Barbour, M. K. (2020b). A fall like no other: Between basics and preparing for an extended transition during turmoil. Canadian eLearning Network. https://secureservercdn.net/

Previous Provincial Profiles

History of K-12 E-Learning

Like many jurisdictions, the origins of K-12 e-learning in Ontario are found in the print-based medium.  In 1926, the Correspondence Courses program (which later became the Independent Learning Centre) was established by the Ontario Department of Education “to provide elementary education for children living in isolated areas of northern Ontario”(Ontario Educational Communications Authority, 2016, para. 7).  Courses covering the complete secondary school curriculum were available by the 1950s.

There is actually some disagreement over the development of K-12 online learning in the province.  For example, Barker and Wendel (2001) indicate that the first K-12 online learning established in the province was the Avon Maitland Distance Education Centre, which organized by the Avon Maitland District School Board in Ontario in 1994-95 (although the program did not offer any courses until 1997-98). As such, Barker, Wendall and Richmond (1999) claim that the first K-12 online learning program to actually offer courses was the Electronic Distance Education Network – a project originally designed by the Orillia Learning Centre of the Simcoe County District School Board to deliver high school courses to adults – during the 1995-96 school year.  However, Smallwood, Reaburn and Baker (2015) argue that Virtual High School (Ontario) is the oldest K-12 online learning program in Ontario, offering its first course in 1995.

By 2000, there were several district-based programs in operation in the province. Joining Avon Maitland and Simcoe, were school boards in Trillium Lakelands, Peel, Durham and Toronto – all of whom were operating in isolation and using a variety of systems. In September 2000, many of these school boards came together to form the Ontario Strategic Alliance for e-Learning. This Alliance operated under a co-operative model where each district was responsible for writing two courses and student enrollments were shared across the Alliance. This Alliance would eventually grow into the Ontario e-Learning Consortium by the 2005-06 school year.

In September 2004, the Ministry of Education began to play a more active role. The first steps involved a survey of all of the distance education courses currently being offered throughout the province, which eventually led to the decision to host a provincial course management system and create a standard set of online courses that all school boards could use. Since 2006, the Provincial e-Learning Strategy has guided the Ministry to provide school districts with various supports necessary to provide students with online and blended learning opportunities, as well as providing e-learning leadership within the provincially funded school system. School districts are responsible for the delivery of online learning.

It should be also noted that the French-language school boards in Ontario have also been active in distance education, and this activity is believed to have a longer history than that of the English language boards. For example, the Consortium d’apprentissage virtuel de langue française de l’Ontario was founded collaboratively by all 12 French-language school boards in February 2010. Unfortunately, there is little published information in English about this activity.


Barker, K., & Wendel, T. (2001). e-Learning: Studying Canada’s virtual secondary schools. Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20040720185017/http://www.saee.ca/pdfs/006.pdf

Barker, K., Wendel, T., & Richmond, M. (1999). Linking the literature: School effectiveness and virtual schools. Vancouver, BC: FuturEd. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20061112102653/http://www.futured.com/pdf/Virtual.pdf

Ontario Educational Communications Authority. (2016). ILC mandate and origins. Toronto, ON: Television Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.ilc.org/about/our_mandate.php

Smallwood, J., Reaburn, J., & Baker, S. (2015). Virtual High School (Ontario): A case study of an online private school. In T Clark & M. K. Barbour (Eds.), Online, blended and distance education in schools: Building successful programs (pp. 144-155). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.


Brief Issue Papers

Individual Program Survey Responses

Program Most recent response  Medium  # of Students  # of Teachers  # of Courses 
Algoma District School Board
2010-11 Online 46
14 full time 125
Avon Maitland District eLearning Centre
2015-16 Online 1,567 7 full time
14 part time
Bluewater District School Board
2010-11 Online 120 9 part time 8
Bruce-Grey Catholic District School Board
2010-11 Online 10 1 part time 7
Canada’s eSchool
2017-18 Correspondence
170 distance
1500 blended
6 full time
16 part-time
14 blended
45 distance
90 blended
Consortium d’apprentissage virtuel de langue française de l’Ontario
2018-19 Online 2,283 24 full time 156
Durham Catholic District School Board eLearning
2012-13 Online 350 21 full time
1 part time
eLearning Consortium Canada
2014-15 Online
Grand Erie District School Board Virtual Academy
2018-19 Online 500 18 part time 18
Halton District School Board
2010-11 Online 275 11 full time 10
Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board
2018-19 Online
2214 (online)
51 (blended)
56 part time
2 blended
117 (online)
8 (blended)
Independent Learning Centre
2018-19 Correspondence
18,932 80 part time 144
James Bay Lowlands Secondary School Board 2010-11 Online 1 1 part time 1
Kawartha Pine Ridge District School Board e-Learning
2016-17 Online 1183 1 full time
20 part time
Keewaytinook Internet High School (Ontario)
2019-20 Online 350 21 full time 80
Limestone Minds Online
2018-19 Correspondence
136 (online school year)
354  (online summer)
20 blended
5 part time
2 blended
>100 (distance)
2 (blended)
Nimbus Christian Education 2020-21 Online 35 12 part time 60
Northwest Catholic District School Board 2010-11 Online 85* 3 full time 3
Ontario Catholic eLearning Consortium
2020-21 Online ~1,500 43 full time
95 part time
Ontario eLearning Consortium
2019-20 Online ~46,339 credits 176
Ontario Virtual School
2020-21 Online 9,856 10 full time
140 part time
Open School Ontario
2018-19 Online 75 1 full time
1 part time
Ottawa-Carleton District School Board eLearning
2019-20 Online 1,900 45 part time 59
Ottawa Catholic District School Board eLearning
2019-20 Online 863 30 part time 26
Quinte Adult Education (HPEDSB)
2015-16 Online
2,034 1 full time
21 part time
Peterborough Victoria Northumberland and Clarington Catholic District School Board
2010-11 Online 104 3 full time 9
Rainbow District School Board
2010-11 Online 213 10 part time 14
Rainy River District School Board
rrdsb.elearningontario.ca / moodle.rrdsb.com
2010-11 Online 106 6 part time 7
Simcoe County District School Board eLearning
2018-19 Online 823 2 full time
3 part time
Thames Valley District Virtual Academy
2018-19 Online 1,636 47 full time 36
Toronto Catholic District School Board eLearning
2018-19 Online 9,000 60-70
Upper Canada District School Board eLearning
2020-21 Online 1,200 2 full time
17 part time
Upper Grand District School Board eLearning 2018-19 Online 1,400 35 full time 21
Virtual Elementary School – Ontario
2015-16 Online 35 2 part time 9
Virtual High School – Ontario
2020-21 Online 11,200 165 full time 111
Virtual Learning Centre
2018-19 Online 800 22 full time
14 part time
Waterloo Catholic District School Board e-Learning
2020-21 Online ~2,300 50 part time 43
Waterloo Region District School Board e-Learning
2015-16 Online
~2,500 online
~8,000 blended
90 full time
75 part time
~400 blended
155 online
~400 blended

* This is the number of students enrolled in blended courses.
** The Consortium represents 12 individual French-language district school boards. These figures represent the combined totals for all 12 programs.

To update this information, visit http://tinyurl.com/sotn-program-survey

Inter-provincial and International

A student registered in an Ontario school who takes a course from an online program in another province, territory or country is able to receive recognition for the learning through the Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) challenge process.  Under this process students have their skills and knowledge evaluated against the overall expectations outlined in the appropriate provincial curriculum policy document to receive credit towards their Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD). PLAR procedures are carried out under the direction of the school principal who grants the credit. Students may be granted a maximum of four credits through the PLAR challenge process.

Ontario’s publicly funded school boards may offer online programs to students living outside of Ontario provided they do not use the provincial learning management system which is licensed for use only by Ontario students and educators.  A credit is granted in recognition for the successful completion of a course that has been scheduled for a minimum of 110 hours.  Credits are granted by a principal on behalf of the Minister of Education for courses that have been developed or approved by the Ministry. For the purpose of granting a credit, scheduled time is defined as the time during which students participate in planned learning activities designed to lead to the achievement of the curriculum expectations of a course.