Number of K-12 Schools: 5022
Number of K-12 Students: ~109,0012
Number of K-12 Distance Learning Programs: 4
Number of K-12 DistanceLearning Students: ~3,500
1 2016 Census data
2 refers to those reporting a 2021-22 nominal roll directly to ISC
Note that these profiles are taken from the most recent edition of the report, please review additional annual profiles below.
Governance and Regulation
In response to Resolution No. 16/2016 passed by the Chiefs Council on Education (CCOE), Indigenous Services Canada (ISC) engaged with the Assembly of First Nations (AFN) in response to Resolution No. 16/2016 passed by the Chiefs Council on Education (CCOE),which called upon the Government of Canada to engage in an Honourable Process to Develop Recommendations to support First Nations Education Reform. The Government of Canada responded to the Resolution by partnering with First Nations to design and implement an inclusive and comprehensive engagement process aimed at developing recommendations for strengthening First Nation student success (see First Nations Education Transformation: Engagement 2016-2018). On April 1, 2019, ISC implemented a new co-developed policy and funding approach for elementary and secondary education to better meet the needs of First Nations students on reserve and improve outcomes.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Program funding replaces the outdated proposal-based programs and provides First Nation students resident-on-reserve with funding allocations that are comparable to what students at provincial schools receive. The formulas are updated annually to account for student population growth and considerations such as teachers’ salaries and benefits, remoteness and school size. Consistent with the policy proposal endorsed by the Assembly of First Nations, on top of this base funding ISC also provides additional funding enhancements that respond to the unique needs of First Nation students. This additional funding includes a common investment of $1,500 per student per year for First Nations language and culture programming; new resources to support full-day kindergarten in First Nations schools for children aged four and five, regardless of how kindergarten is offered in the respective provincial education system; and ongoing investments in special education, over and above comparable funding levels in provincial education systems. Furthermore, ISC is working in partnership with First Nations to develop Treaty-based, regional and local education agreements that respond to the education goals and priorities set by First Nations. These agreements are co-developed at a regional level through discussion tables to reflect First Nations’ needs and priorities.
It should be noted that the department, previously known as Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), is currently the department of Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada (CIRNAC) and the department of Indigenous Services Canada (ISC). ISC houses key First Nation services such as: Regional Operations; Child and Family Services Reform; Strategic Policy and Partnerships; First Nations and Inuit Health Branch; Lands and Economic Development; and, Education and Social Development, Programs and Partnerships. This structure is designed to position the programs and services to more effectively collaborate with First Nations, developing and delivering holistic approaches to social, healthcare and infrastructure services for Indigenous partners. The two continue to be responsible for meeting the Government of Canada’s legal obligations and commitments to Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis), and for fulfilling the federal government’s constitutional responsibilities in the North.
K-12 Distance and Online Learning Activity
First Nations administered schools submit data to ISC so that their funding reflects local context with indicators such as:
- distance education;
- home schooled (online sourced); and
- virtual (Internet).
However, under the Education Transformation and to reflect the Principle of First Nation Control of First Nation Education, ISC respects that the sharing of data is a First Nation decision and, therefore, ceased providing program level data following the 2017-18 school year.
At least four K-12 distance/online learning programs designated as Indigenous programs have been identified: Keewaytinook Internet High School and Wahsa Distance Education Centre (Ontario), Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate (Manitoba), and SCcyber E-learning Community (Alberta). Based on the most recent data submitted by these programs to the Individual Program Survey, it is estimated that there were approximately 3,500 students engaged in distance and online learning during the 2021-22 school year.
K-12 Blended Learning Activity
For funding purposes, ISC does maintain indicators related to blended learning:
- classroom and distance education; and
- classroom and virtual (Internet).
However, since ISC no longer provides data on these indicators the most recent data shared was for the 2016-17 school year. At that time, there were 201 students registered for blended classroom and distance education and 331 students registered for blended classroom and virtual (Internet) for a total of 531 students engaged in blended learning.
Given this limitation, no estimate of the approximate number of students engaged in blended learning during the 2021-22 school year is provided.
First Nations schools do not fall under provincial jurisdiction. While many schools may have followed the mandates and guidelines in the respective provinces in which the school is located, Indigenous Services Canada supported First Nations control of First Nations Education and, as such, the First Nation communities made their own choices regarding their protocols and delivery methods.
Federal guidance for K-12 school re-opening was based on the most current scientific information as outlined in Community-based Measures to Mitigate the Spread of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Canada. The Federal Government also outlined considerations for reducing risk through the use of cafeterias and libraries, as well as specific school activities such as music and physical education. The use of masks for risk reduction was encouraged, specifically for children over ten years of age and particularly where physical distancing could not be achieved. Extra considerations for students with disabilities included continued access to supports and services with extra accommodations made where necessary. Supports were also outlined for Indigenous communities who were “remote” or “isolated” specifically regarding health measures for First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities to mitigate risk (LaBonte et al., 2022).
LaBonte, R., Barbour, M. K., & Mongrain, J. (2022). Teaching during times of turmoil: Ensuring Continuity of learning during school closures. Canadian eLearning Network. https://canelearn.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/Teaching-During-Times-of-Turmoil.pdf
Previous Provincial Profiles
History of K-12 E-Learning
The history of K-12 e-learning focused specifically upon First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) populations is inextricably connected to developments at the provincial level. For example, recognizing the need for a community-based secondary option that would help deal with issues students faced when they had to leave their communities, sometimes as early as thirteen years of age, the Keewaytinook Okimakanak – a chiefs’ council the Nishnawbe Aski Nation territory in Northwestern Ontario -established the Keewaytinook Internet High School (KiHS) as a pilot project in 1999. The project initially focused on course offerings in grades 9 and 10, but in 2006 expanded their offerings to include grades 9 through 12 that lead to an Ontario Secondary School Diploma. The program currently operates as a regulated private secondary school in the province.
In 2000, the Sunchild E-learning Community (now SCcyber E-learning Community) was established in Alberta as an attempt to address the poor graduation rates of Aboriginal students. Similarly, in 2004, the Prince Albert Grand Council in Saskatchewan outlined a similar concern and created Credenda Virtual High School and College (which eventually would become a not-for-profit, registered charitable First Nations and Métis educational institution). More recently, the Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate was established by the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre in 2009 with funding under the federal New Paths for Education program. Finally, based on the SCcyber E-learning Community model, the Niagara Peninsula Aboriginal Area Management Board Inc. established the Gai hon nya ni: the Amos Key Jr. E~Learning Institute as a regulated private secondary school in Ontario for the 2010-11 school year (although this program ceased operations around 2014-15).
In 2013, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (now Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada) made the decision to no longer enter into service agreements directly with e-learning programs. Instead funding would be provided to the regional authorities (i.e., First Nations) to make the decisions on the nature of educational opportunities that should be funded within their jurisdiction. While this change had little impact on e-learning programs such as KiHS and Amos Key, which were funded through a nominal roll process by the Ontario Ministry of Education, it did cause the closure of the Credenda Virtual High School in Saskatchewan following the 2012-13 school year due to a lack of funding.
Also, in 2013 Manitoba Education began investigating options to support the formation of virtual collegiate(s) that would be granted Ministry identification codes and able to offer distance education throughout the province. The first of these virtual collegiates was the Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate, after Manitoba Education and the Manitoba First Nations Education Resource Centre signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a three-year pilot collaboration beginning in the 2014-15 school year.
- Wahsa Distance Education Centre (2019)
- On Site Mentors at KiHS (2017)
- Gai Hon Nya Ni: Amos Key Jr. E-Learning Institute (2013)
- Credenda Virtual High School and College (2013)
- Keewaytinok Internet High School (2013)
- SCcyber E-learning Community (2013)
- Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate (2013)
- Credenda Virtual High School (2012)
- Sunchild E-learning Community (2012)
- Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate (2010)
- Credenda Virtual High School (2010)
- Keewaytinok Internet High School (2009)
Brief Issue Papers
- Issues Related to Funding FMNI Online Learning Programmes (2013)
- The Use of ICTs and E-learning in Indigenous Education (2013)
- First Nations High School Education on Canadian Reserves: An Alternative Approach (2013)
- Keewaytinook Internet High School: Moving First Nation Students ahead with Technology in Ontario’s Remote North (2010)
Individual Program Survey Responses
|Program||Most recent response||Medium||# of Students||# of Teachers||# of Courses|
|Credenda Virtual High School (Saskatchewan)*||2012-13||Online||478||6 full time
3 part time
|Gai Hon Nya Ni: The Amos Key Jr. E-Learning Foundation/Institute (Ontario)**||2012-13||Online||75||4 full time
2 part time
|Keewaytinook Internet High School (Ontario)
|2021-22||Online||600||27 full time||86|
|SCcyber E-learning Community (Alberta)
|2021-22||Online||550||1 full time
7 part time
|Wapaskwa Virtual Collegiate (Manitoba)
|2021-22||Online||96||12 full time||60|
* Credenda Virtual High School ceased operations following the 2012-13 school year.
** Gai Hon Nya Ni: The Amos Key Jr. E-Learning Foundation/Institute ceased operations around 2014-15.
To update this information, visit http://tinyurl.com/sotn-program-survey
Inter-provincial and International
AANDC requires that online courses be taught by a teacher that is provincially/territorially certified and that online programs be accredited by the province/territory that they are located in to be eligible for First Nations students. AANDC does not have any policy on the transfer of online credits taken from programs in jurisdictions other than the one that the student resides in, and defers to the ministry guidelines for the provincial/territorial in which the student resides. However, AANDC does recommend that individual First Nations consult with their provincial/territorial Ministry of Education to determine equivalency prior to enrolling the student.