The 16th issue of the annual State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada study describes the changes that have occurred in relation to e-learning governance and activity over the past year. Jurisdictional profiles describe activity and nature of governance for each province and territory, as well as for Indigenous programs under federal jurisdiction. Like previous publications, this issue describes only changes that have occurred in relation to the governance and e-learning activity while full profiles remain on the project research website (

The 2022-23 school year saw a post-pandemic return to regular classroom-based instruction, reducing the online and distance education options across the country. Some jurisdictions continued with remote learning, others merged remote learning programs with more robust e-learning programs, while many simply redirected parents and students to their existing online learning programs. In addition, many jurisdictions restarted implementation of regulatory changes that were delayed during the pandemic.

Prior to the pandemic, e-learning data from the Ministries of Education were more easily sourced and also more precise. However, the 2022-23 school year saw the lowest response rate since the very early years of this project. While this lack of response does not impact the ability to report on the nature of regulation in each jurisdiction, it has impacted ability to accurately reflect the level of activity in some jurisdictions, with eight of the 14 jurisdictions showing a decrease in the number of students engaged in K-12 e-learning. The decline is likely also due to the artificial inflation of participation during the pandemic. Otherwise, distance or online learning enrollment remained stable across the country with Western Canada still reporting the largest level of student participation in online programs, while Atlantic Canada the lowest level.

Regulatory changes initiated in the 2021-22 school year were implemented in the 2022-23 school year. British Columbia finalized policy changes to create designated provincial school providers and a quality assurance framework. Manitoba began the process of developing a provincial remote learning strategy, including an online high school, however to date this process has not changed the actual provision of K-12 e-learning. In Québec the distance learning pilot projects continued, but no data was provided, likely contributing to the reported decline in e-learning in the province. Ontario saw the implementation of requiring online courses that spurred an increase in the number of private schools offering e-learning. This should bring an increase in enrollment that matches or surpasses the Western provinces in future years, should that data be made available.

The State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada report, and its accompanying publications on its project website, provides critical information and insight into how Canadian educational authorities and governments are integrating technology-supported approaches to prepare students for today’s economy and a future society in which the use of technology will be ubiquitous. The report and website provide a benchmark for educators and offers background, guidance, and ideas for the improvement of policy and practice in online and blended learning.

The report can be accessed at:

2023 State of the Nation: K-12 e-Learning in Canada

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